Journal I : Expedition to Glacier Bay, Alaska, Summer 1890

June 30th

The ship lay all day yesterday on E. side of Lynn Canal. This morning, Cushing, Adams, Morse and I had our boat set out and started to sail [MS illegible] to Pyramid Harbor, so called from a small cone shaped island in front of it. This island as far as we could judge is part of a moraine. We shipped so much water on account of the high sea running that we finally boarded a fishing smack, and got them to tow our boat ashore. Mr. Laws, superintendent of the cannery said it was doubtful if we could secure proper Indians and recommended that we should take a white man Wm York, and we made an arrangement for him to go with us. We are to pay his expenses and give him $50 a month. If at the end of one month we desire it, he will go back to Pyramid harbor. We had about two hours before the steamer left; and Cushing Morse and I started to ascend the old moraine of a small valley glacier which lies in the valley just behind Pyramid harbor. The moraine was thickly wooded every step. In places Devil's club scratched made us wish we had taken another route. We ascended 750 ft but could not see the glacier on account of a turn in the valley. The day was beautifully clear and the mountains behind glorious, quite equal to the swiss alps. The stream cuts thro' a gorge in one place.

The sail down Lynn Canal was most interesting. Mountains and glaciers on both sides, and great [here?] fields alone made a scene, such as I have never seen before. About ten o'clock we turned up Glacier Bay and saw Crillon and Fairweather looming up ahead; they are magnificent mts.

June 29th

Chilcat [Chilkat]. We cast anchor at the cannery here this morning just as I got up; having passed Davidson's Glacier about an hour earlier. This glacier is about ten miles south of the ship and projects well out into the inlet, surrounded by its wooded terminal moraine. We Mr. Cushing and I went ashore in a dry-out to see if we could hire two Indians to go to Glacier Bay, but did not succeed. We may do better this afternoon at Pyramid harbor. The mountains around us rise 3000 to 6000 ft and are much covered with snow, ice and glaciers; this is the first real alpine scenery we have had. The mountains tops are mostly in the clouds.

[Additional script:] Miss H.M. Andrews
                                      State Bank of Olympia
                                             Olympia Wash.

June 28th

Juneau. Reached here early this morning; it has rained off and on all day. Found Mr. Willard who was very kind in helping me to get information about Glacier Bay Indians too high to hire. Mr. Allen spent a summer prospecting at in Glacier Bay and gave me some good points. Clouds low and no view. Bought a chart (701 N.S.C.T.G.S.) and some tracing linen, Miss Andrews alone. I [MS illegible] party went to see the Indian dancers, which were given as an exhibition. In evening ship went over to Douglas Island and we went thro' the stamp-mill (into stamps) and saw where the ore was taken out.

June 27th

Friday, at Fort [Mariyell?]. We reached Port Townsend, Monday 23rd early and saw them taking in freight until 12 n. We then crossed over to Victoria arriving there at 3:30 pm. Beautiful gardens and hard English roads introduced us to the town; where all was neat and English looking. [Written sideways in margin] Passed [MS illegible] Better Breed Indians. The men from the towns on Puget Sound often go to Victoria and buy their clothes, which they can buy better and cheaper than behind our tariff wall. The harbor is beautiful. Olympic range of mts. to S; just slightly explored. We sailed about 10 and reached [Nanarino?] early Tuesday morning, where we took on coal for the U.S. S.S. Pinta. Beautiful tropical-looking foliage, and splendid harbor. We lay there until 2 pm so as to reach a narrow passage at the turn of the tide. On Wednesday morning 25th, we passed Queen Charlotte Sound and for three hours were exposed to the Pacific Swell, which, which cleaned the decks pretty well. Again in the afternoon the swell in [Milhawk?] Sound carried many to seek their cabins. Whales (fin-back) were seen, spouting and diving. On the morning of Thursday June 26th Dixon Entrance was passed; the last opening would [we?] approach Silka. We went up Behm Canal to Burroughs Bay, where a cannery is established. A large river, not given on the charts, [power with its canal?], and its water yellow with glacier mud, makes a strong sharp line of contact with the deep blue water of the straight. We cast anchor for about an hour, within 300 ft of the shore in 21 fathoms of water. The Capt. bought a young [bear?] here.

Today, Friday we spend at Fort [Mariyell?], awaiting the tide. The totems, I photographed with my Kodak; and bought a few garnets which came from somewhere on the Stikeen River not far from here. Up to the present we have had very disagreeable weather; frequent showers and low clouds have pretty well prevented us from seeing the high mountains, tho' the [MS illegible] in these narrow channels, with snow-sprinkled mountains behind we are very charming. The New Eddystone Light-house, a nearly perpendicular rock rising about 200 ft from a platform in the middle of Behm Canal, covered with [thrushes?], is very striking. To-day the showers are continual. There are [MS illegible] amusing persons on the boat: The Kangaroo; The Lady with the Toothpick; Son; and Son's Ma and Pa.

Mr. [Gorman?] left us at Loring yesterday; he is Seat. of Explor. Section of Oregon Alpine Club, and is out collecting plants. He gave me some information about the two exploring parties, led by Prof. Wells, with two young college students and [MS illegible] expect to cross the Chilkat Pass and go around the St. Elias range, coming out at the Copper River. The ascent of Mt. St. Elias is to be made en route!! Mr. I.C. Russell and Mr. Kerr are to make a more direct attempt at the Mountain; from what information I can collect of their preparations and adaptability for such and expedition, I judge they will not get up.

Yesterday I compare my chronometer with the Captain's. I will make another comparison before leaving the ship.

June 22nd (Sunday)

Steamer now late [(]sailed about 6 pm[)]; showery weather. Saw our freight put on board. Ship canine is head of cattle to [paean?]. Bought a row-boat with a sail at an enormous price $75. The letter from Mr. Millard, [MS illegible], led us to expect to pay $2 to 2.50 per day for each Indian. We therefore bought this [boat?] and intend to do without Indians, except perhaps for  a week or two.

June 21st

Made morning and afternoon magnetic observations today; also some [un?]satisfactory observations on Sun. At noon come one come [all?] with Mr. Anderson's (jeweller) observed meridian passage of Sun for to determine time. I determined conection for my chron. but do not consider the observations my accounts.

June 20th

Showers off and on; Mt Tacoma still hid. A bear near the hotel is the great excitement, tho it does not offer much variety in its movements.

Everything is progressing finely for our trip.

Commenced magnetic observations today; [but?] could not determine the meridian for lack of [sun?] at right time. Hope to do this tomorrow.

June 19th

All these western towns are rivals, and each wants to be larger than the others; hence they are all dissatisfied about the census returns and accuse the enumerators of carelessness in their work. The amount of excitement over this is very strange as one from the East.

Today the weather is clear, but Mt. Tacoma is still hid by clouds. By the aid of Mr. Plumm Plummer, County Surveyor, I have decided to make magnetic observations in the Park in old Tacoma.

June 18th

Called on Mr. Moffet this morning. He very kindly put us in the way of getting provisions, etc for our trip. Rain all day. The tide here is 18 ft and a great flat much bank is exposed at every ebb. Tacoma is built on high ground which rises up on one side of this mud-flat; the flowers here beautiful and enormous.

June 17th

This morning we found ourselves in the region of the great lava-flows, towards noon we reached the Columbia River and then followed up one of its tributaries, the Yakima, to the Cascade range. The Basaltic formation along this stream was of much interest. In many places the columns showed well. We had a few glimpses of the snow-clad Sierras towards the evening, but did not see the range well. We reached Tacoma at 11pm.

June 16th

This morning Adams and Morse were up at before 5 am to see the Bear Paw Mountains (the first mountains they ever saw). Soon after we saw the Highwood mountains and the Little [Pelt?] Mountains. North of these ranges had some snow on them. Party harmonious and everything promises agreeable companionship during the summer. We have heard reports of a Cheyenne outbreak south of the Yellowstone, which makes me anxious about Edith, [There is great rivalry among these small towns. Each blows its own trumpet with [MS illegible]. Their situations were so similar and showed no apparent advantage over any other part of the plains that I was curious to know their origin. Our inquiry it turned out as follows: every few miles from six to twelve, the railroad would put in a short side track, in order that trains could conveniently pass each other without waiting very long, and load the cars with wheat. The farmers would then [bring?] their wheat to this point for shipment. An elevator company would put up an elevator to receive this wheat, someone would start a store, and it by [MS illegible] the town would be settled, and grow.]

Air (dry) and clear. The [degrees?] of the climate is indicated by the nature of the erosion - it is very much like that in Colorado. This morning and [MS illegible] over passed this grazing land, having left the wheat region behind.

The three hours before reaching Helena were very interesting. The mountains were [MS illegible] and showed many curious crags. At Helena we could make connections with the N.P. train and as the time tables had been changed, and thus not giving me time for morning and afternoon magnetic observations, even if I should wait more than a day, I decided to push on. We met Edith and Miss Andrews as they were leaving the train and we all went on together. From Helena on the trip is very interesting. It was beautiful crossing the water-shed; soon after we went to bed.

June 15th

All day thru N. Dakota, the wheat region. The towns are situated on a dead level plane (glacial drift) and are all small. They have mostly sprung up within three or four years, since the advent of the R.R. [Macey?] and therein consist of a station house, an elevat a grain elevator and a few houses. The country is perfect, flat except where the streams are, and [MS illegible] a group of moraine hills are seen. David up late  bed (quite small) am continually [MS illegible].

Towards evening, we passed into Montana and approached the Missouri River. The Drift was left behind and we now found Cretaceous (?) clays. Some Indians were seen.

June 14th

Reached St. Paul at 1:50 pm, rainy weather. Our ride [MS illegible] the Driftless Region of [Nissim?] and [MS illegible].

Our passes take us of the Great [MS illegible] as far as Helena then over the Northern Pacific and Tacoma. To avoid expense of buying local tickets for the ladies, they decided to go in the Northern Pacific all the way. We therefore saw them off alone and expect to meet them in Helena. I shall send back the ticket I bought for Edith to [MS illegible] it redeemed.

We left St. Paul at 5 pm and saw St. Anthony Falls at Minneapolis (a post glacial fall).

June 13th

Left bluebird at 10:45 am with following party: H.P. Cushing, Carey Adams, J.F. Morse and Myself. Edith goes with me also, returns from Alaska alone.

Trip to Chicago uneventful. At Chicago joined by M[?] Andrews of Cincinnati, whom we sent to Tacoma. Left Chicago 11 pm.