Journal I : Expedition to Glacier Bay, Alaska, Summer 1890

September 24th

Wednesday. We passed Dixon's Entrance when we were abed last night. Today the weather has been somewhat clearer. We steamed thro' narrow passengers and saw beautiful waterfalls and valleys on both sides. The mountains tho' not high are very bold and thickly wooded. Their forms are evidently the result of glacial action. Some of the passengers who had been in the Yosemite thought that these vallies and cliffs much resembled that famous place.

At eight o'clock tonight we passed reached Milhawk sound; the talk on Muir Glacier was therefore put off until tomorrow night. I retired gracefully to the stern and helped to swell the rising tide.

September 23rd

Tuesday. Last night it was so misty that the ship ran very slowly, and only reached Loring this morning. We stopped there until three o'clock. Adams went off with the Steward to shoot ducks. We had pretty hard rain all day. In the afternoon we reached a cannery at the head of Tongass Narrows, where more Salmon was shipped. When there the weather was so thick that the Capt. decided to remain at anchor all night; but about nine o'clock we it cleared somewhat and the ship went ahead, passing Dixon's Entrance in the middle of the night, thank heaven.

In the evening Mr. Gregla, an exiled Pole, who took part in the rising of 1863, was sent to Siberia, escaped, and came to this country, gave us an interesting description of his adventures in Siberia. He says Kennon's descriptions are far within the truth. He says that Russia has sent 50 men to this country to learn English and to deny in their writings Kennon's statements.

I have consented to tell the passengers something about Muir Glacier tomorrow night.

September 22nd

Monday. The weather continues cloudy and rainy. We reached Fort Wrangell about 10 am. We went ashore and made for Charlie Chinook's shop. He had no spoons, but we bought some very pretty bracelets. his work is much better than that of the other Indians. We also ordered him to make us some some which the [steeraid?] McKenna will get for us his next trip. I bought also a very good halibut hook. The baskets here and at Juneau were not nearly so well made as those we saw and bout at Bartlett Bay, and they were more expensive. The boys also bought various articles.

From Fort Wrangell we went to Labasha Bay, just around the point, and took on 3200 cases of Salmon, remaining there nearly all afternoon.

The canneries are shutting up for the winter and many of their employees go down on the Topeka, which does not make a very pleasant company. Some of the passengers, however, are very nice. Next to me at table sits a young Russian Priest, who has not yet learned why forks are put on the table. Almost opposite is a man who was at the naval academy, but who is not now in the navy. They probably got rid of him on account of a singular preference for gentlemen in the navy. There are two English ladies, who are of course, unobtrusive; two Frenchmen, who are very gentlemanly, and a general mixture of Americans. There is but one young girl aboard, about 17, who receives the attentions of all the young men.

September 21st

Sunday. We were up this morning at daylight, rowed over to the "Chinook", waked up the Captain, who sleeps aboard, and soon were transferring our baggage to a large flat-boat. We rowed it over to the dock and with block and tackle hoisted it up. I paid Mr. Johnston $75 for the Chinook's services in bringing us over from Bartlett's Bay. He did not charge us anything for our board there. I also gave him $15 for Tah-quo-kette, provided the letter I gave him were returned. Mr. Johnston is either to return me the letter or the money. The Captain Wallace's reason for not coming in to Bartlett Bay was that he thought we had gone down in the Elder. It seems Prof. Muir had made special inquiries at Seattle as to whether the Elder would visit Glacier Bay, and was told that she would. Then at Sitka Captain Wallace heard of that about some of our party were being on the Elder, and supposed that the whole party were on that ship. There were some 15 or 20 passengers on the Topeka and that was the reason he tried to go up Glacier Bay. There are not very cordial relations between the B. Bay Co and the S.S. Co and the ships only stop at B.B. when they are notified that 1500 cases of Salmon are ready for shipment.

We left Juneau about 8 am and steamed over to Douglass Island where we lay until about one. The weather today is much clearer tho' there is but little sunshine. We went over the works at Douglass Island, conducted by one of the [p]assengers there.

About 3 pm. we turned into [Laker?] Inlet and an hour later saw the glaciers. There are at its head. There are three. The first one, on the left, ends much like the Davidson. It is about 1/3 mile wide. The second at the head of the inlet is about as wide, it ends in the water and discharges bergs like the Muir Glacier. It is very picturesque, coming down between steep hills, about 2000 ft high, and ending in a wall of ice probably 100 ft high. During our stay one pretty large berg broke off. We approached to within about 3/4 mile of the glacier. The bay here was completely covered with small ice.

The third glacier is in a valley to the right, the inlet running some distance towards it, but not reachingit. The whole inlet is lovely and most picturesque, the snow-capped mts making a fine background to bay, the tree covered hills and glaciers in the front.

September 20th


About one o'clock this morning we sighted Douglass Island. We had then more than thirty miles to go around it, with a head wind and tide against us. (The Capt. of the Chinook is a Baltimorean and sailed formerly on one of Mr. Tom Whitridge's ship to Rio. His name is Jones.) We reached Juneau at five o'clock this morning and found no Topeka there. We cast anchor, and then three or four of us went ashore. After wandering about a little while we found the watchman who told us the Topeka had not arrived. So we were sure of catching her. We soon after returned to the tug and slept as well as we could until about seven o'clock. We Our party there launched our boat from the deck of the tug, getting it filled with water in the act, and rowed ashore after bailing it out. We went to a horrid hotel "The Franklin" where we had an equally horrid breakfast. Soon after breakfast Adams and I went up to see Mr. Willard, and had a very pleasant visit to him. (The weather continues nasty; it rains and rains, and the streets are full of mud.) Mr. Willard walked down the street with us to make some inquiries about selling our boat and canoe, and tents. He introduced me to the offices of the Custom House, who seemed much interested in the Glacier and asked many questions concerning my studies there.

We returned to the hotel where we had a dinner worthy to succeed the breakfast. All day the wind has been blowing harder and harder, right up the channel, and the waves have become pretty large. We spent the afternoon trying to get our baggage transferred to the dock, but were unable to get it done. The Engineer and the crew (fine) of the tug were more than half seas over, and were therefore useless.

Adams and I took supper with Mrs. Willard at her invitation.

About 8 pm. we heard the Topeka's W whistle. Hastily taking our leave we ran down to the hotel, paid our bill, routed Morse and McBride out of bed, and went down to the dock in the pouring rain. Mr. Johnston met joined us on the way down. Before reaching the dock we saw that the Topeka had cast anchor and would not communicate with shore that night. We found the agent, who thought we would be safe in going to bed, as the ship would not approach make a landing before daylight.

As the boys were not well pleased with the beds they had been in, fearing extermination before morning, we sought other quarters. We finally found beds with a storekeeper named Reid, where we slept very comfortably.

September 19th

The Chinook did not arrive yesterday. So we had to unpack our blankets again and pass another night in the loft above the cannery. She arrived this morning however with 2200 Salmon. They were unloaded as quickly as possible and our baggage put aboard. It is a nasty, disagreeable, rainy day. We got away at half-past one. Tah-quo-kett's squaw and his son have been after me again today for their money. But I refused to give them anything unless they returned me the letter of recommendation. As we boarded the Chinook, "Charlie," the son, came out and again asked for the money. I repeated what I had previously said, and he went ashore; as he was leaving one of the boys asked him if he was going for the letter and answered "No."

There was a great deal of ice in Icy Straights, but after rounding Strawberry point the water was clear. The wind soon blew harder, dead ahead, and towards evening the "Chinook" pitched considerably. I lay in the Captain's bunk in the Pilot house and had some rest tho I did not sleep. The boys lay in the engine room and in the Caboose. Night, rain and mist came on together; and it was very difficult to see the mountains well enough to steer the boat. Mr. Johnston went to Juneau with us.

September 18th

Thursday. This morning the men here gave up hopes of the steamer's arrival. It rained hard all night, this morning everything was in mist. At half-past nine someone saw the faint form of the steamer making up Glacier. We were all delighted and happy as possible. Mr. Johnston wanted the raft on which our baggage stored piled to pile his boxes of salmon and take them out to the steamer, so we went out and transferred our traps to a smaller raft. While doing this we saw the steamer coming back. She had probably met ice and would not venture further. Down she came, but did not seem to turn towards us. She could only be faintly discerned and we could not be sure at any moment that she was not turning. On, on she went and finally disappeared behind a projecting point of land. How our hearts sank and our tempers arose! This end of our trip seems to be made up of anxieties and disappointments. There is one more hope left. The Chinook is due back here by five o'clock this afternoon. I offered Mr. Johnston $75 if he would take us immediately to Juneau. The trip takes about 10 hours. He agreed to do so. The steamer will probably go first to Chilcat and then to Juneau, in which case she will not get to Juneau before tomorrow evening. If she does not go to Chilcat she will reach Juneau tonight, and will probably lie there all night; in that case we hope to catch her before she leaves in the morning. The men here do not think much of the Siwashes, nor do they think the missions inspire them. They say the missions make them more intelligent and teach them to read, but do not inspire their morals. Some of the white men here have Indian squaws, a state of thing which seems to me infinitely more barbarous and degraded than that of the Indians themselves!

Tah-kho-quette's squaw has been hanging about all morning to get the money, but I would not understand what she wanted. They can wait and have some anxiety about their money, after behaving as they have. We gave them, when we broke camp, what would cost them at least $10.

September 17th

Still no steamer. Hope deferred waketh the heart sick. How glad I would be [to] see the steamer. We eat with the men; the cook is chinese, who makes excellent breads, and speaks English, but the raw materials are of a very poor quality. This morning I did some trading with the Indians, I bought a number of bone and wooden spoons and traded off one of our lanterns. I went with the Siwash to his log hut. Inside was a fire on the [MS illegible] in the middle of the floor, and around on blankets were squatted four or five women, squatted making baskets or engaged in other things, and a couple of dirty children[.] The sides of the house were piled with old boxes, old Russian trunks etc, containing the wealth of the household. Several old Russian muzzle loading guns also hung on the wall. Poles were placed across the house about six feet from the floor and fish were drying on them. A hole in the middle of the roof let the smoke of the fire exit. I was invited to sit down by the fire and then the various articles they thought I would want were brought out on[e] at a time, and a price twice too high was set on them. After two hours sitting and talking, I finally got about three spent about three dollars, and obtained various bone and wooden spoons and an adze which they use to hollow out their canoes and to make boards with. I was glad to see the inside of a Siwash home, but equally glad to get out of it. Yesterday the "Chinook", the little steamer here arrived from Noonah with 1800 salmon, this morning she went back again for more. An Indian arrived here yesterday saying he had seen the steamer going from Juneau to Sitka. That accounts for her being so late; she will stop here after leaving Sitka.

It seems that Mr. Johnston did not make any special bargain with the Siwash. Tak-quokette, who brought us down from Camp Muir, besides the numbers. Yesterday he dressed up in an old blue naval officer's coat and came bringing his letters of recommendation with him, to receive his pay. I gave him $15, which was quite sufficient, considering that we did all the rowing down to this place. He was very well satisfied and asked for a recommendation, which I wrote for him. Later in the afternoon he brought back the $15 on the counter of the store where I was sitting and said it was not enough; he wanted $20. I put the money in my pocket and have said nothing more about it. His relatives had evidently put him up to it. Two of the men here, the store-keeper and the superintendent of the fishing seem quite intelligent. The founder is an Englishman, speaks correctly, has traveled a great deal, and seems to have read considerably. I have had many interesting conversations with him.

September 16th

Tuesday. Sunshine and rain today. Still the steamer does not come; I am growing very nervous on account of the possibility of her passing us by. I have been reading the Count of Monte Christo all day, to pass the time and keep my mind off the steamer. The boys have done some trading with the Indians, I also went thro' the cannery today. It did not increase my desire for canned salmon. Indian women, nasty, dirty things, put the salmon in the cans, chinamen doing the rest of the work.

September 15th

Monday. We were up by daylight this morning and started at 6:15. The sky was overcast and the rain sprinkled occasionally so that we kept our oilskins in readiness. McBride and I went in the large canoe, Adams Morse in the small canoe and Adams in the boat. The wind proved favorable tho' light, the water was smooth and we made very good progress, sailing part of the time. We went thro' the [Bearslide?] Islands, low moraine islands, many thickly wooded, and so close together that we the water ways between them looked like channels. Great numbers of cormorants, gulls and ducks flew up at our approach. We reached Bartlett Bay at one o'clock, coming upon it quite unexpectedly. It is not on the mainland as given in the chart but on an island. Mr. Johnston received us; our first question was about the Topeka and we were delighted to find that she had not arrived.

The cannery is situated a long frame building about 200 ft long; almost all the work is done on the ground floor. There are two or three several other small buildings for the store, diving [MS illegible] and kitchen, sleeping houses, blacksmith shop etc.; a larger house for the chinese who are employed here and a number of Indian log cabins. The surroundings are pretty, but it must be a dreary place to stay in.

Mr Johnston assigned us the upper story of the cannery as our sleeping apartments, and we carried our blankets and other necessities up there, leaving our boxes on a raft. We watch continually for the steamer. (The whole place smells of fish.) The steamers do not always call here, and Mr. Johnston does not think she will necessarily call this trip; but as Capt. Wallace told me he would, I think there can scarcely be a doubt of it.

September 14th

Sunday. Secondary Camp #7. Yesterday the rain continued. At ten o'clock Adams went to the door and saw a large canoe approaching. It contained an Indian, his squaw and three boys, bet. 5 and 12 years of age. He had come to take us down to Bartlett's Bay. Breaking camp in the hard rain was very disagreeable. We finally got off at 4 pm. Adams and Morse were in the one canoe, McBride and I in the boat and the Indian in his canoe an[d] family, with all our baggage that we did not put in our own crafts, and a number of things which we discarded, but which he was not too proud to take. We covered the things as well as we could to keep them dry. As a north wind was blowing we set sail, but after a mile the wind dies out and a little further we encountered a head southerly wind. The north wind was nearly a glorious one.

Finding the progress of the large canoe very slow, the Indian and the squaw using paddles and one small boy an oar, Morse and I went aboard, he taking an oar and I a paddle; one small boy went in the canoe with Adams, and McBride had the boat to himself. This accelerated things considerably, so that when we stopped to camp at 6:30, we had made about 7 miles. Our secondary camp #6 was on a shady beach, where we found good water and some well soaked twigs of dead elder. By a plentiful use of coal-oil we made a good fire and boiled our coffee. The Indian's tent was near ours; he seemed to make himself very comfortable. His large canoe resembles very much the pictures gondolas of the 15th century. Last night he anchored it instead of beaching. We did not have a very agreeable night, as we had to make camp in the rain, and everything was damp and nasty. My shoes and feet were wet; I took off my shoes and my feet dried during the night, but my shoes were still soaking in the morning. We were up this morning at 4:15, had breakfast and were off at 6:30, the weather appearing not quite so bad. I rowed the boat Morse and McBride rowed in the canoe, Adams and a young Indian paddled the canoe. At first all went easily, but soon we rounded a point and then wind and waves both opposed us, so that we found great difficulty in making even a little headway; we finally worked our way into a protected bay and beached our boats at 9 am. not having made more than three miles advance. The rain stopped and the sun came out, but wind and wave continue high so we remain here tonight. Our camp (#7) is beautifully situated, on a lovely bay with green islands and mountains all about; but we are so anxious lest we should not catch the Topeka at Bartlett's Bay, that we can scarcely enjoy anything. Our blankets, tent, and hand-grips have all been spread out today, I fear very much that some of the instruments and our other baggage may have gotten wet. We expect to start tomorrow as early as we can see, if the wind abates or shifts so as to give us a lee shore.

September 12th

Friday. Another very rainy day and no canoe appears yet. Our provisions are getting low. The potatoes have been out a week, the maple syrup about as long, and today we finished the sugar. We have done some little packing, tho' there was not much to be done. I made a padded box for the chronometer, to protect it from jars. I also collected a number of igneous rocks for Dr. Williams at the Johns Hopkins.

We have had a big fire in the hearth all day which is rather conducive to laziness. Morse took a photograph this morning of the interior of the house. During the last two days we have had fully an inch of rain, as shown by the pails left out.

September 11th

Thursday. We were up this morning soon after six, and found it raining. The rain has continued steadily all day; and we have packed as steadily. Tonight nea everything is ready but the last closing up.

For the last few days we have been mak baking bread, and we find it a great improvement on the very hard hard-tack which we had left.

We have been all day on the look-out for the canoe. It will be very disagreeable if we have to make the trip to Bartlett's Bay in the rain.

September 10th

Wednesday. Another fine day. The last three nights there has been scarcely any wind, and in the morning the flag hangs limp; but late in the day, by nine o'cl. the glacier wind makes it stream out to the south. The self-recording thermom. shows an almost straight slowly falling line for the night temperature for these three nights while the day temp. is a jagged line ranging 8 or 10 degrees within an hour. The night lines have usually been like the day lines.

I went up to the glacier today alone and made a few photos of the ice ridges. I also made some observations on temp. of water in streams on ice in front of Dirt glcier, at end of White glacier. They ran from 0 degrees to 0.1 C.

I returned in time to make my midday magnetic observations. While in the magnetic tent about 2 pm, Adams called that there was a letter for me. I came out and found that a Siwash had come in his canoe, of course with his wife, and brought me two letters, one from Mr. Cushing written at Bartlett's Bay and the second from Mr. Johnston there. It appears that Mr. Johnston cannot send the steamer "Chinook" for us, but promised to send a large canoe to take us and our traps. Mr. Cushing in his letter seems anxious about our getting away, and gave us directions about coming down the coast. There would be no difficulty in our working down to Bartlett's Bay or even further, but we could not take our baggage; and we could not leave that.

The distance to Bartlett's Bay is about 35 miles, and the Siwash was to receive $5 for bringing me the letter. This I gave him. I also sent a letter by him to Mr. Johnston telling him to send a large canoe. We immediately set to work packing. I had intended to go across the inlet this afternoon, but of course gave that up. The weather continues fine. Fairweather is very clear. The sunset tonight was beautiful, and afterwards there was quite a good amoral display.

September 9th

Tuesday. Magnetic observ. for declin. again today. After breakfast McBride Adams and I went to E to make a cairn. The weather was beautiful; we went without any packs to carry and it was delightful. We made a first-rate cairn about 8 feet across and 4 1/2 ft. high with the flag in its old the middle in its old position. I think it will last for several years. I made took a few compass bearings and then came home as fast as possible for my magnetic work. McBride and Adams left to go up to one of the White Glacier moraines after some specimens of [MS illegible].

In the afternoon I took some photographs about camp and made some satisfactory observations for Agimuth. The weather continues fine and is not cold except at night. Slight amoral display tonight. I think we should see such slight displays almost every night if we watched for them, but we usually go in doors by dark, about 8 o'c.

September 8th

Another fine day. I was up early and made observations for declination. This requires me to be in the magnetic tent at every quarter hour for about 2 minutes from seven to half past eight or nine in the morning and from twelve thirty to two thirty in the afternoon; this means thro' breakfast and lunch time, so I eat with my watch before me, and leave the table always 2 1/2 minutes before the quarter hour. We are beginning to prepare to leave. McBride has been getting the boxes ready to pack. He has taken up the floor cloth of the large tent and piled the boxes in them to keep perfectly dry. I worked a little with the plane table at camp today and made some observations today for latitude and got 58 degrees 50', which is about right. The wood we collected from across the stream makes splendid fires, which we have thoroughly enjoyed.

Morse has been sick for two or three days, with what seems a kind of [MS illegible] of the stomach. He says he has had it before. Today he is better.

Much ice has fallen from the ice front within the last week. Until then days last night, it was nearly all from the deep bay, making it deeper, but now the projecting point is breaking away. The general line of the ice front must be two or three hundred yards further back than when we arrived here. Whether this is permanent or not, I can't say.

September 7th

[Start of Journal IIII]

Sunday. This morning I was up early and began observations for Declination (magnetic); but as the day was very fine I determined to take the plane table to the top of the 3000 ft hill. (Yesterday there was a sudden change in the wind, it had been blowing from S, when suddenly a strong gust came from the N, and frome that moment the weather began to clear.) Accordingly Adams and I started with the canoe about half past ten; we paddled across the stream and then, I carrying the plane table complete, and carrying my camera and the lunch and McBride's rifle, we waked along the old flood-planes of the stream and ascended by the gulley. The weather was warm, we had been in camp for several days, and we were heavily loaded, so that we ascended slowly and were quite tired when we reached the top at 2 pm. We found some water melting from a patch of melting snow and had lunch. I then worked with the plane-table and took photographs until nearly 6 pm. The weather was glorious, and the mountains were beautiful. This is one of the best points of view I have ascended. The temp at the top at 3 pm. was 52.37. In camp at the same time it was 48.7.

The # effect of the cold glacier wind here is well marked shown. Adams wandered about shooting at groundhogs while I was at work.

[In margin]: # This is usually more marked. The wind today was not strong.

I made a photograph of the ice-front, whose appearance has much changed since we first arrived. There is now a deep bay on this side and a projecting point near the middle; this point however has no such len[g]th as is [found?] in Prof. Wright's map. The bay cuts in about 1/4 mile behind the line joining the two corners of the inlet; the point being about on this line. This distance was estimated by comparison with the distance of camp from the ice-front, which is Renown to be a little under 3/4 mile. We reached camp a[t] 7:30, and soon after supper I went to bed.

September 6th

It continues rainy today, with the clouds low. I have been calculating my magnetic observations; and determining axis of collimator mgnt [magnet]. Tonight I took in the magnet of the Dip circle.

[Additional entry taped to back cover of journal III]:

[In top margin] From Paris.
Guns located by sound from 3 stations; locations of high vel. guns and howitzer can be found within 50 yds. The exact location is then found from special photo file W56-46. (a)

Aerial defense of Paris
File 9185-C-6. Exh.1.p.2 special appa. [apparatus] invented by Prof. Perrot receives and amplifies sounds and is used for detecting aeroplanes.

Same Exh.5.p.18 Zeppelins can be heard from about 6 Kms. and the direction located by means of Segnae apparatus.

[End of Journal III]

September 5th

Friday. Today the clouds are low tho' it does not rain. We did not wake this morning until 9 o'clock. I spent the afternoon making observations for magnetic dip. This is McBride's twenty first birthday, and Adams made him a cinnamon birthday cake.

September 4th

Thursday. Today the wind has changed and comes from the north. The appearance is for good weather. We decided to make an excursion of several days to the neighborhood of Granite Canon. We started at 1:35 carrying our blankets and provisions, but taking no tent. By the time we were opposite the White Glacier, about 3:30, clouds are beginning to gather, and the advisability of going further became questionable, so we decided to camp by the side of White Glacier and tomorrow morning go further or return according to the weather. We did had supper on the moraine, and by seven o'clock the weather was so threatening that we decided to push for home. We reached camp at nine twenty, after a fatiguing and somewhat dangerous walk. The last hour and a half was in almost perfect darkness. Fortunately, this part of the glacier is not at all crevassed, but it is full of holes from a few inches to several feet deep. I put my foot into several of them and had so[me] rather uncomfortable falls. When crossing the moraine we had to feel almost every step before trusting to it. The boys did admirably. On reaching camp, we made a big fire, had a light supper and went to bed.

Our fires have been most cheerful; we dress by them in the morning, and sit by them in the evening; we also have them during the day when we remain in camp.

September 3rd

Wednesday. Weather continues rainy tho' it does not rain so hard. I spent morning calculating. In afternoon we went to D and made a cairn of stones, and collected some firewood.

September 2nd

Tuesday. A very rainy day. Today for the fi[r]st time this summer, I spent doing absolutely nothing, looking over magazines, illustrated papers, etc; in fact, it was a regular loaf.

September 1st

Monday. I awake this morning at 4 am, and heard a little rain on the tent; it was a very light rain, so I did not pay much attention to it, hoping it would soon stop. As it continued I got up at 4:20 and made a fire, and boiled the coffee, and prepared breakfast. We packed up everything, especially the blankets as soon as possible, order to have that done if it should rain harder.

We tossed [our?] packs; McBride got the canvas bag containing the blankets etc, and the tent; I had the plane table complete and the Kodak. We put on Mackintoshes, shouldered our packs, I threw the rubber blankets over mine, and left at 6:20 am. The rain grew harder, but this was not so bad as our former experience at this camp. We found our boat, Launched it and reached camp about 9:30 am.

Morse and Adams had had a good time during our absence. After getting some good photographs of the buried forest, they on Saturday, the[y] paddled down to a small bay some ten miles south of camp. There they made a beautiful camp, got some photographs and remained all day Sunday. Towards night, the clouds began to gather and they returned to Camp Muir arriving about 10 pm.

The rest of today was spent in camp, attending to little things.

August 31st

Sunday. Weather today fine. We decided to try and go to g5, spend the night there, doing plane table work in the afternoon and tomorrow, if possible to make an excursion without packs to f2. I carried the canvas bag with blankets, coffee pot, wood, and provisions for three days. McBride carried the plane table, Kodak and some wood. We started about half-past seven. The ice was rough and hummocky. Soon we encountered deep and long crevasses, which a little further were crossed by a second set, requiring us eventually to jump over them; this was very fatiguing with our packs; the crevasses became worse and we soon saw that we would be unable to reach our goal. We stopped having traversed about 1/3 of the distance, and set up the plane table and worked for an hour or so; we then returned to our the nunatak left our packs at the side of the glacier and ascended a mountain just about west of Black Cap and a little higher. We ascended a small glacier, got above the snow line and tied up; we walked about two miles over neve and then struck a snow slope which took us right to the top. The view was beautiful; i made three sketches. We saw to the west the place where Muir Glacier descends by another channel to Glacier Bay, uniting with another large glacier which comes from the west. The top of our mountain was capped with black as are the other peaks in this group. This is due to dykes which run thro' the granite of the main peaks and weather black at the very top. this dyke material seems harder than the granite at the top, but often on the sides it is softer and forms the stream beds.

We had a glorious glissade down the snow slope, about seven hundred and fifty feet. We were an hour going up, and five minutes sliding down. We reached camp at 7:30. This nunatak like G is of hard light grey granite, and is polished and scratched by the glacier, and has great grooved running in the direction of the scratches, (N 25 W). It is also covered with granite debris.

Tonight the sky is not so clear; the few clouds have a somewhat lurid look; so we have put everything in the tent.

August 30th

Saturday. McBride and I started this morning at 8 am for a three days trip on the W side of glacier. We rowed the boat over with the blankets and plane table. There are enough provisions left at Camp #5, so we did carry away more. Morse and Adams paddled over in the canoe to help us carry up the boat on the beach and to take some photographs of the buried forest. We shouldered our packs, about 30 lbs each, at nine o'clock and reached Secondary Camp #5 at 11:40. We found everything in good conditions; the tent was standing as we left it and the provisions had not gotten wet. After lunch we started went up to the top of the nunatak with the plane table and McBride's Kodak. On the way up we had a fine bath in a small lake pond where the water was very warm. I worked about three hours and a half at the top (I); and returned to Camp 5, where we had a jolly fire.

August 29th

Friday. While we were looking out for the Elder this morning we saw a small tug working its way thro' the ice and coming up the inlet. It turned out that the Elder ran against an ice-berg near the mouth of Glacier Bay and had to lay up up a day or two for repairs; she had but about twenty five passengers, and sent most of them up to see the glacier in this tug which belongs at Bartlett's Bay. Cushing, Pike and Casement, went down on the tug. Cushing was anxious to see more of the Pacific Coast, and Casement wanted to stay and see more of this region, and I also had more work to do here. The weather today is fine with a strong wind from the north. Morse and McBride went out this afternoon to measure the motion of the stakes that were put in the ice near the east side of the Glacier some three weeks ago. They found the motion inappreciable of the rapid decay of the glacier. Adams and I went to D and to M with the plane table and mapped the shore.

The boys have made bunks in the house and the four of us who are still here will now live in the house, and by degrees pack up the things and take down the tents. The boys have undertaken all the cooking and have relieved me of this, which was very considerate of them. They have all along attended to the meteorological observations under Mr. Cushing's directions, so that I have not had to give any attention to that subject.

August 28th

Thursday. Cushing, Pike and I went up the 3000 ft hill today. The view was glorious. I took 11 photographs, one series being the moraines, and one being the ice front. The view looking down on it is striking; just now there is a deep indentation and a projecting point like Prof. Wright figures, but much less marked. Pike shot three ptarmigan on the way up.

August 27th

Wednesday. Last night we had a hard blow from the south and very hard rain.

August 26th

Tuesday. Gary Pike of Chicago, a friend of Casement's, we invited a[s] Casement's guest to spend a week with us in camp, which and he accepted. When we started away (yesterday, 26th) Cushing and Morse started with a small sled "Pup" for Granite Canon, and Casement and Pike went down the bay some ten miles to shoot.

This morning about 2 am we were awakened by a little drizzle on our faces. We got up and set up the tent. By daylight it was raining hard, harder than it has rained this summer. Everything indicated a settled rain for several days; we decided to leave the tent and provisions, and taking only our blankets and the plane table to push for home. The oil-stove made us some coffee and warmed some roast-beef in the tent, and then donning our oil skins, off we started. We reached the boat at 11:40 and camp about three quarters of an hour later, with the rain dripping from our oilskins, and pretty wet all thro'. The other two parties had arrived just before we did and were in the same condition. We had a good laugh at each other. We changed our clothes, rubbed well with alcohol, and felt no disagreeable effects of the netting. The house is full of wet clothes hanging up to dry. The rain continued hard all day and within 12 hours rained nearly an inch.

August 25th

Weather improved. I went to bed early last night and [felt?] much better this morning. Adams McBride and I left camp at 12, took "Maud's Blonde Friend" in the boat with us and crossed the inlet. We carried a tent, blankets, and provisions for three days; also the plane table. We packed the things on the sled, and Adams and McBride pulling and I pushing we went the west side of G to the nunatak beyond. The ice was very hard to pull the sled over. We reached the place for camp at 5:20 pm. Although Fairweather was beautifully distinct in the morning, the wind from the north was feeble, and the barometer was low and towards evening- the clouds began to gather. Fearing that that tomorrow might be cloudy, I left the two boys to make camp and taking the plane table ascended some distance up the nunatak and id some work. I regained camp a little after eight. We brought with us the small oil stove; not feeling sure of finding wood, but we nevertheless did find enough for a camp-fire. The camp was on decomposed granite covering the solid rock. We had forgotten the rubber blankets, and therefore spread down our oil-skins, over which we spread the tent and slept with nothing over us but our blankets.

August 23rd

Sunday. Still bad weather. I have caught cold in my bowels, probably while making magnetic observations. Mr. Cushing and the boys worked today covering the cracks in the house, and have made the house much more comfortable. They also put some cement on the chimney which now draws very well. I lay down most of the day

August 22nd

Friday. Today I began magnetic work, and spent most of the day in with the declinometer. The Queen arrived in the morning; the tourists did not seem so curious as usual and did not flock about our tents. Capt Carroll brought us some more lumber for the house, but I doubt if we shall have time to put it on.

August 21st

Wednesday Thursday. Today we spent in camp, doing nothing but resting; Prof Muir leaves us tomorrow so I have given him all the points I could as to the location and distance of various mountains and trib. glaciers. He also gave me information regarding the Main [Muir?] Lake and its valley. Mr. Cushing, Adams and Prof. Muir, spent a day down the inlet during our absence and had a good time.

August 20th

Tuesday Wednesday. We did not wake up this morning until nine o'clock. The weather was cloudy and all the summits hidden so we decided to push for Camp Muir.

We started at 12:30 and reached camp Muir at 8:45 after a hard day's work. I left McBride to go up a moraine on the way expecting to join him further down the glacier, but reaching some troublesome crevasses, he stopped to wait for me. The Glacier here is in great rolling waves like the prairies; so that I passed McBride without either seeing the other. After going some distance I caught up to Casement and Morse, and finding that McBride had not gone past them, we started back to find him. He was at least two miles behind us, and we were much relieved that nothing had happened to him.

August 19th

Tuesday. Left camp this morning about 8 am, reached Snow Dome in about an hour, and leaving McBride and Casement to make camp (Secondary #4) Morse and I took the Plane table and went up Snow dome, reaching the summit at 1 pm. The top of this mountain is a beautiful broad dome completely covered with snow and commands a beautiful view of the mountains around Granite Canon and the large tributary Gl to the W. I worked with Plane table and photographing until six pm. In the meanwhile McBride and Casement arrived bringing the lunch. The weather continues glorious. All the upper parts of the mountains and upper Glaciers are in full view, but the lower part of the Gl. and Muir Inlet are covered by a cloud which is quite below us. I took a photo- of this view, but am doubtful of the result. We all feel pretty tried with this continued work; climbing mountains heavily loaded is very wearisome. Our camp #4 is on the ice which slopes up against the mountain; but this ice is so well covered with sand and gravel that we do not feel the cold from the ice beneath.

We saw some [ptarmigan?] as we were coming down Snow Dome. I shot one with my revolver, and threw stones for some time at the others, but did not hit any. They are very tame, and run about without even trying to escape.

August 18th

Monday. Started today for Snow Dome about 11:30, but did not get there. We stopped about 7 pm. on a lot of Debris just S of Snow Dome and made camp for the night [In margin: Second #3]. On our way we stopped in the middle of one of the large moraines (Station 7) and did some work with Plane Table.

August 17th

Sunday. I was up this morning at 5:30, made a fire, filled the coffee pot with ice and put it on to melt and boil. I then called the boys, we had breakfast, and started up the mountain carrying the plane table, camera and lunch. When we were nearly at the top a ledge of bad rock stopped the rest of the party, so I took the plane table and camera to the summit, by making several trips, and worked there for three or four hours. The view was beautiful. In front of us stood up the three peaks of Mt Reid, with the large main lake in front at the end of the Glacier, and to the left the smaller Berg lake piled with ice-bergs. To the S.W. loomed up quite a large mountain mass pouring down Glaciers into the thick tributary. To the west we could see down to Muir inlet, and the whole of the Fairweather Range beyond. To the north Snow Dome, Mt Cushing and Granite Canon were close at hand, and to the NW the great long tributaries of Muir Glacier seemed to extend indefinitely, flanked by numerous mountains, so distant that they looked quite small.

The scramble up and down Tree Mt. was very laborious especially with the heavy and clumsy instruments we had to carry.

August 16th

Morse, Casement, McBride and I started today with two sleds for Tree Mt. and that neighborhood. We took the Miner's tent, blankets, oilskins and provisions for five days; also, the plane table and my camera and three or four dozen plates. The day looked threatening but we pushed on. All hands helped to carry the things up the moraine. We took dinner in front of White Glacier where we found plenty of wood. We made camp at 7:30 on the N side of Tree Mountain on a small [sheer?] projecting into the Glacier [In margin: Second #2]. This has been very recently covered by the Glacier, and shows the scratches and scars, where the ice has knocked out great pieces of rock. The debris covers the rock pretty well; even the finer mud has not been washed off by the rain, so recently has the ledge been covered by ice. We found plenty of dry wood, fallen from above, and made a fine camp fire. We could see the trees growing some 1000 ft above us. There seems to be a fairly well marked line at about this height, below which the rock is much barer than above. This probably marks the height of the last advance.

August 15th

Adams, Casement and I went over this morning to W NW corner of G, where I finished what I had to do there with the P.T. I also took a dozen photos. Morse and McBride made a sled. Mr. Cushing has been quite unwell for a few days with a bad cold. Mr. Muir got back about noon today; he did not go very far.

August 14th

The Topeka arrived today. The capt. says that she may not come to Glacier Bay next trip, so it was a lucky thing that I was here to see him. There is a small steamer at Bartlett's Bay that will probably come and take us that far if the Topeka does not go further than that point.

In the afternoon Adams, McBride and I went to the NW corner of G nunatak with the Plane Table; as we I did not finish the work I was doing there, we left the plane table and decided to return tomorrow. Weather glorious.

August 13th

We had a little sprinkling of rain last night which frightened us but did not amount. We were up this morning at 3:30 had breakfast and started off at 6. The ice was so thick that we gave up the idea of going further up the Bay and started went down to find thinner ice to cross over and enter the inlet opposite. We reached a large island NW of Willoughby Island at 4 pm, and as Prof Muir thought we might take two days to see it and get back to camp, we decided to return immediately; and we arrived home at 10 pm. Prof. Muir borrowed the canoe and went alone into the inlet.

August 12th

Weather good today[.] Prof. Muir, Mr. Cushing and McBride took the boat, Adams and I the canoe, and leaving camp at 12:20 started for a trip around upper part of Glacier Bay. After leaving the Inlet we found much ice and only succeeded on getting 2 or 3 miles up the bay. We camped on a grassy knoll, at 5 pm. we ascended 1000 ft to get a view up the bay but were not successful. Opposite to us and little way up are the two glaciers which almost [but?] against each other, and behind them the Fairweather Range are hidden in clouds.

August 11th

Monday. We had another Southerly gale last nigh; which caused me to get up at 4 o'clock to see that the tent was allright. The dial of the self-recording therm. had blown away and I replaced it. The dial which was lost a week ago was found by a tourist and returned to us. In the afternoon the boys went "prospecting" and Prof. Muir and I took a walk up the glacier. If tomorrow is good weather we start on a trip around the upper part of Glacier Bay.

August 10th

Sunday. Another rainy day[.] In the afternoon it cleared a little, and Adams and Casement went up to E to observe the flags on the ice, but could only see the near ones on account of the mist.

August 9th

Rain today so we all remain in camp. Mr. Cushing and I did squad work.

Prof. Muir had a rough experience with York. York followed him apparently with the intention of shooting him, but the Professor kept out of his way, and came back some 15 hrs ahead of him. York left yesterday for Chilcat via the Glacier. Prof. Muir takes his meals with us and we use his house to sit in. The fire-place is progressing; in the meanwhile we have built a fire on some sand in the middle of the floor, which warms the house and causes a good deal of smoke.

Morse developed some of my photographs today; they seem pretty good. Under Prof. Muir's directions I worked on my sketches and improved their appearance and effect.

August 8th

Friday. Mr. Cushing McBride and I started this morning to ascend Pyramid Pk. We arose at 3:30, got breakfast, and left camp in the boat at 5; we found plenty of ice in the inlet which made our passage long. On landing we crossed the moraine, and struck up the valley of the Dying Glacier; we reached Glacier front at 7:20 and took breakfast. We then ascended the glacier to the divide. This glacier is very anomalous; it has no beginning but two ends. The principle moraines extend from end to end; the smaller moraines extend from both ends to near the middle where they disappear. One of these moraines had its two ends connected under a covering of ice in all respects like the rest of the Gl. ice. The valley runs N 65 W. Probably the ice once came tho' this valley from the N,W, and when this flow ceased, the ice which was left in the valley flowed both ways from the divide; a period of heavy snowfall followed which covered the glacier to such a depth that it was compacted into ice above over the old ice and moraines; this ice is now melting and has exposed nearly all the former moraines. The view from the divide was beautiful. The NW end of the glacier lies on a broad grand bank about 1/2 m. long, beyond which is a most beautiful inlet from Glacier Bay, the water of which is most beautifully clear, with bergs floating about in it. The mountains on both sides slope right down into the water, and beyond one can see Glacier bay and the Fairweather Range. Pyramid Pk rises in a steep uniform grass slope from the water to its summit, 4000 ft. The height of the divide was 860 ft by Bar[ometer]. We descended some 200 ft and had some more breakfast at a stream which poured under the glacier from the right. The valley down which it came was formerly occupied by a glacier of which but a small remnant remains. We then skirted a ridge between us and Pyr. Pk and entered a second valley. This we found [piled?] with moraine and [angular?] debris making the walking very tiresome. Its upper part is piled occupied by a pretty little white glacier, which has its neve in a saddle on the N side of Pyr. Pk. and sweeps around thro' this valley. The valley ends above in high granite cliffs whose junctions with the

(End Journal II)

slates was clearly visible marked. We wound up the left side of the valley, over [a?] small part of the glacier and then struck a now couloir which led straight up the N face. This couloir became steeper and steeper; at first one kick was sufficient to make a step, then two were necessary, and finally the slope was so steep that four or five kicks were needed to make a [sure?] step. We of course were roped on this slope. In the steepest places the slope was certainly 50 degrees. This couloir was about 1200 ft high. We reached its top about 2 pm; had some lunch and pushed on to the summit, some two hundred feet higher. I made one or two sketches of the beautiful view and tried to get some angles on the peaks, but the lower circle of the transit could not be kept stationary and the angles were worthless. We could see where one tributary of Muir Glacier pitched down towards Glacier Bay. We descended the grassy southern slope, starting at 5:25, worked on to the glacier, walked its full length, and reached the large flood-planes of its discharging stream. We walked this over this when it was quite dark and after wandering about for some time, found our boat at 10:15 pm. We soon rowed across the inlet, luckily finding but little ice in the water, and reached camp, a very tired out party. This was is the first peak up which I have ever led a party; it is about seven miles from camp, ab. 4000 ft high, and required some care in the couloir. We were out from camp 18 hrs.

Morse and Adams went to K to observe the flags. The Our former results are confirmed, the fastest motion of the ice being about six or seven ft per day.

August 7th

Thursday. The Queen arrived today early; a little later the Elder steamed up. She had run ashore twice since we were on her; hence the delay. Prof. Wells of Union College came on the Queen. In the afternoon McBride and I went to E with the plane table and camera. I got a few photographs and continued work on the map.

August 6th

Wed. Adams and I went to H with Plane Table and worked on the map. We staid [stayed] there until 9 pm. I made a sketch of the opening 3rd tributary. I also got a very pretty photograph of Mt. Casement with a Rock Basin lake in the foreground.

August 5th

Monday Tuesday. Mr. Cushing Morse and I went to G with Plane Table to continue the map. We had a hard climb up a stream bed on the S side; the plane table is very troublesome to carry, both on account of its weight and on account of its dimensions. Morse carried his camera and made a few pictures.

August 4th

Morse, Casement and McBride went to K to observe flags; Adams went to E for same purpose. In afternoon Mr. Cushing and I went up to see the Dirt. Gl. and ascended 2500 ft on grass slope to North. We had a fine view of upper part of Glacier which is very clean, and I made the first sketch in my new sketch book. The arrangement of the moraines on this Gl. is very puzzling. This peculiarity is undoubtedly due to advances and recessions of the ice The ice is now receding as shown by the great masses of ice, covered by debris up against the sides all of the mountains and connecting with the glacier below.

August 3rd

Sunday. We were waked up last night at 2:30 by the tent pulling and flapping as tho' it would be blown away. Mr. Cushing and I went out to look around, and found a strong S.E. wind blowing. It was fortunately quite warm (58.5 degrees) so that we were not chilled. We tightened the stays of the tent, which had become very slack by [drying?] yesterday, and put big stones on the pegs to prevent them from being blown pulled out. the bay was full of ice, and the tide very high, within 50 ft of our tent; it is about the new moon and the southerly wind also helped to make the tide unusually high. It was The wind caused quite a strain on the tent, and if we had not put a truss under our ridge-pole some days ago, I doubt if it would have stood it. Mr. Cushing and I were out about an hour and then returned to bed. The wind continued very heavy all night. This morning we found that one of the end stays had pulled its peg several inches thro' the sand, although the peg was covered with large rocks. The wind also blew away the dial of the self-recording thermometer so that the whole week's record of this instrument is lost. this morning the inlet was closely packed with ice, small and large, and during the day many large bergs have broken off. The clouds were thick early in the morning but should the sun shone brightly about ten o'clock, and I took my camera and made three exposures on the ice-front. I also measured the height of the ice front with the Gurly transit and found it varying from 150 to 240 ft. In the afternoon, Casement, Cushing, Adams and I started to set flags out from eastern side of Glacier. Before we had gone far, Casement dropped his axe into what was apparently a puddle, but what proved to be so deep that the axe sank in it beyond recovery. Mr. Cushing lent Casement his axe and went back. We found the first three flags and rest them. We also set a fourth flag, probably about as far out as the original fourth flag.

The Elder is overdue three or four days. Possibly the bad weather or the large quantity of ice has kept her out of Glacier Bay.

August 2nd

Saturday. Rain again. We have divided our party into three squads to do the camp work, cooking, cleaning dishes etc. Adams and Casement attended to it yesterday, Mr. Cushing and I today. Morse and McBride will do it tomorrow. We have cleaned things pretty well and will have things in much better order in future. Some of the boys helped at the chimney today and tonight a fire was made, but it smoked pretty badly.

August 1st

Today was pretty clear. Mr. Cushing, Morse, McBride and I sailed over to W side, and following our former south ent[rance] on the ice to put up flags. We found the first three flags, so that we could eadily determine very closely their former positions; we replaced them by making a note of whatever change we made. The other flags we could not find, but put up two new ones. York left us our employ at noon and is now employed by Prof. Muir.

July 30th

The rain continues all day, and so does work on the chimney, which is now about four feet high. I [took?] two pictures (photos) of "the rain gauge at work". The rainy weather seems to increase the discharge from the glacier; many large bergs have fallen in the last few days, and the inlet is very full of ice.

York leaves us as soon as the Elder arrives. He evidently came up with the expectation of prospecting and being disappointed in that, he wants to leave us. It is likely the Prof. Muir will hire him to take him about the Bay in a canoe.

July 29th

The rain continues. In the afternoon Mr. Cushing and I put on our oil-skins and started up to see the White Glacier. We followed its end up to its valley, a distance of about seven miles. The rain prevented us from seeing [far?] into its valley, but we saw its beautifully curved moraines, and two or three of its tributaries. It must be moving very slowly; at one place debris from the mountain had been washed clear across the white glacier to within a few ft. of its [opposite?] lateral moraine; this moraine being a medial moraine at this point a medial moraine of the great glaciers. The White glacier keeps white to its terminus in front of Dirt Glacier, where its lateral moraine wheels around and approaches the shore just in front of station E. This external lateral moraine is well divided into two b by its material into two bands; a red one, on the east and a grey one on the west side. The line between them is the apex of the moraine ridge, which rises 30 to 50 ft above the ice on its sides. There is a difference of level of 20 or 30 feet between the ice on opposite sides of this moraine.

Opposite the valley of White glacier the main glacier is very low, and rises all around. The ice is very blue. We saw a stream disappear in a crevasse and return to the surface like a Beehive Geyser, the ice having apparently frozen up around the opening.

July 28th

Monday. Rain off and on all day. We were obliged to keep in camp, tho' the rain was not hard enough to keep us in the tent. Some of the boys helped Prof. Muir with his fireplace; Morse and Casement arranged the sounding lines; an Mr. Cushing and I put up the two tents for the magnetic instruments. In the afternoon I gave the plane table a good cleaning up.

I had a very interesting talk with Prof. Muir about the mountains around us and the tributaries of the Main Muir Glacier. His sketches were very good. He has named a mountain after me and another after Mr. Cushing. These mountains are around to the S.E. and are not visible from camp, or from any near points on the east side of the glacier. Prof Muir told me a good deal about his experiences when expoloring this coaset. We were much amused [by the] statements in Badlam's Book "The Wonders of Alaska", which are remarkable some for their utter disregard of truth, others for their utter disregard lack of meaning.

We found from our measurements that Pyramid Peak is about seven miles from us and just under 4000 ft high. The mountain just east of E is three miles distant and about 5400 ft high. b4 is about 15.5 miles off and 5458 ft high. C2 is 19 miles away and 6454 ft high. This makes these mountains a little more distant and somewhat lies high[er] than I supposed. But they have all the effects of high mountains; in their outline and sculpture; in the way the snow and ice clings to their sides and in their couloirs, in the glaciers on their slopes; and the great glacier at the feet.

July 27th

Sunday. Rain all day. We have calculated some more triangles, darned stockings etc today. Mr. Cushing and I put on our oil-skins, and walked up to the ice-front for exercise. Morse and Casement took the cause and went down the inlet, not withstanding the rain.

July 26th

Still rain, tho' not very hard. Shingling continues. York has been helping in this work and it seems to have make him dissatisfied with cooking; we may lose him when the steamer arrives. Further calculation on the motion of the ice yields a result surprisingly at variance with Prof. Wright's. We only find our middle stakes moving about 6 ft a day. Prof. Muir had concluded that the motion could not be more than 10 ft a day. Prof. Wright's error must be due to the means at his disposal and to his mistaking one pinnacle for another.

This afternoon Adams and I took the boat and sailed over to station I, as the rain has stopped. We took the Plane table and made a map of the ice-front at water line. The second was M. As we sailed back I kept watching the glacier front so as to notice the changed appearance of the points sighted on as seen from the direction of M. I was thus able to recognize nearly all the points. Those that I missed some about the middle of the glacier on account [of] a rain which came on while I was working at M, and made them invisible. The drawing shows that the general shape of the ice front is slightly concave, with various sinuosities and projecting points, but with nothing resembling the great middle point of Prof. Wright.

I unfortunately left the lens of my camera at home, but Morse has rigged up one of his lenses, (just like mine) to fit my camera; he has also fited [fitted?] up a box as a dark room, so I think we shall be able to get some good photographs and develop them here.

Morse has proved very handy, and is the most energetic and useful man in the party; and the most reliable. The ridge pole of our tent has bent somewhat, so we have put a truss under it to strengthen it.

July 25th

Rain today. Yesterday Prof. Muir, Mr. Loomis and York worked on the wooden house and got it well forward. Today more work was done on it, by Prof. Muir and Mr. Loomis. The rest of us spent the day solving triangles, thus fixing the position of our various points. We have also fixed the position of the flags on the ice and find that the two inner last flags from the opposite sides are over 400 meters apart. Although this does not affect the continuity of our line of flags, it is hopeless to expect to cross this quarter mile. We were three hours, making about 100 yds meters bet. the 5th and 6th flags from W; and the portion bet. 6th and 7th flags is worse. The shingles are going on the wooden house, and place is being left for an open fire.

July 24th

Another fine day. Casement and Morse went over to K to get the motion of the flags on the ice. Adams, McBride and I went to E for the purpose. I took the plane table and after Adams had observed the flags, I started the general map of the region. The scale is to be 1/120,000, about 1/3" to the mile. I had to sketch the whole semicir circle of mountains and make corresponding numbers on the sketches and the map, which took us until 6 pm. Mr Adams left about 1:30 to make the 2 pm observations at camp.

Mr. Cushing explored the Dirt Glacier. He found the traveling very laborious, some distance up the glacier becomes clear. Four hanging glaciers and two neve fields contribute to form this glacier. Three of these are on the ridge just behind our camp. The glacier runs from its mouth back towards E and then sweeps around towards S. The debris seems to come principally from the hanging glaciers.

July 23rd

The Queen got in early this morning. Casement found some friends on board. The Capt. brought the board house which, however, goes to Prof. Muir, tho' we shall get much benefit from it, I think. We took lunch aboard. I was surprised to see Dr. Hayden among the passengers. Mr. Cushing accompanied him and some of his friends to station E to get a view over the Glacier. In the afternoon Mr. Chas. S. Fee, Gen. Pass. Agent N.P.R.R. was on the Queen. In afternoon Morse, Casement and I paddled the canoe across the inlet to sketch map the front of the Glacier with the plane-table, but found after getting there that we had forgotten the top. We therefore could do no work. The wind and waves were pretty high, but the canoe behaved well, and we enjoyed it very much. After dinner we had a most glorious sunset. The sky was somewhat clouded and the sun shining under the clouds lit up parts of the mountain and made them glow with a strong warm yellow light. Other parts were in deep shadow; the contrasts this produced were very striking.

We walked up to the glacier front and found the corner near this side gone. The holes we drilled a few days ago in the ice-wing were obliterated.

July 22nd

Today we remained in camp solving triangles, and doing camp work; we expected the Queen but she did not arrive.

July 21st

To-day I kept camp. Adams and McBride went to station E. to sight the flags on the ice and had no difficulty in finding them all. They recognized a small displacement of the flags within an hour. Morse and Casement took the canoe and went over to K for the same purpose; they also were perfectly successful. Cushing and I went up to the ice front and drilled a few holes in the [MS. illegible] face of the wing to see how it was sliding over the underlying guard.

Prof. Muir has been out on the glacier for about a week (10 days). Morse and Casement saw him above the creek on the W side, but were unable to get to him with the canoe thro' the ice. After supper Loomis, York and I went over to get him. After some search I found him preparing to spend the night on the moraine, and b[r]ought him and his sled back with us. He has had a very interesting trip, and has seen a great deal. He reports mountain sheep and wolves.

July 20th

Sunday. Weather continues fair. After our Bible reading Morse, Adams, McBride and I, started to put out flags from W side. We went today in order to take advantage of the good weather and to be able to measure motion before the other flags should fall. We started nearer the front of the glacier and nearly succeeded in crossing; we put out six flags (6' x 4.5') the furthest being quite near the last from the other side. The last part of the passage was very difficult, and for three hours nearly every step had to be cut; [the?] crevasse was immense, the wedges of ice high and steep, requiring careful climbing to pass in safety. We turned at 7 pm. The large pinnacles showed the stratification and at the same time the new striae cutting each other at an angle of ab. 65 degrees exceedingly well. We returned to camp about 10 pm. Well pleased with our success. The flags now practically extend across the glacier, within about 1/4 mile from the port.

July 19th

Adams, McBride and I made another attempt to cross the Glacier from E side. We started a little before 10 am from camp and tried to cross pretty near the front (within 1/4 mile); the ice at first was much broken, due to the faster motion (prob) on coming opposite the edge of the inlet. We placed 4 flags, and returned early. The crevasses here are very deep and show that they are increasing in depth, due and breadth, due to the near approach to the end front when the motion must increase. Where we turned the wedges were pretty well separated and on at their ends. Morse and Casement went across the inlet with the plane-table to make a map of the ice front, but could not succeed on this side in recognizing the points the[y] sighted from the other.

July 18th

Today Morse, McBride and York started for the Siwash camp to see if they could buy a canoe. They returned about 5 pm with a small dug-out for which they paid $10 and $1 more for a paddle. It is a very nice new canoe, but rather small. It was the only one they could get. The rest of us remained in camp, calculated, and cleaned the two small transits. We also made latitude and time observations. Our latitude observations (4 sets) [were?] within 3/4 0.75, the average being av. 58 degrees 50'. Weather still fine.

July 17th

This morning, McBride, Adams and I went over to station K to observe the flags on the ice. We found [but?] one, apparently the last black flag from W side. the others have probably fallen. The wind presses the pipe against the side of the ice and the upper part of the pipe being warmed by the sun melts the side of the whole; the flag pipe droops over more and more and finally falls out. The new flags to be put up must be four times as large as the old ones to be more easily found. The flag we saw seemed to be well out in the worst part of the ice. The glacier must be tried nearer to its end the next time. We then went to the top of the ridge just south of the K ridge. From there we had a beautiful view of Pyramid peak. I went alone to the western end of this ridge. From here a small glacier was visible below which seemed to have no [feeders?], and to fall away both toward Muir Inlet and towards a second inlet, which comes in from the west from Glacier Bay. The view was very beautiful. I made two or three sketches. Pyramid Peak was very enticing. We must climb it soon. When we returned to the beach we took a bath in a small moraine lake near station AB.

From AB and from camp we sighted on several points of the glacier front to fix its position. We shall use the plane table to make frequent maps of the glacier front and thus determine what changes take place during our stay here. Morse kept camp again; Cushing and Casement ascended the hill behind camp.

July 16th

Morse helped me this morning to observe for time by equal altitudes of sun with Gurley transit. Morse made the afternoon observations.

At 10 o'cl. Casement and I went up to station E and [sighted?] on flags on ice to fit their positions. The flags were only found with great difficulty with large telescope and then afterwards found with small transit. They looked like small specks with this instrument. All were found except 1st and last of W side. This was all day's work. (These flags were planted a few days ago, within 3/4 mile from ice front.) They all had iron pipes for posts.) Adams, Cushing and McBride went over to station K to do the same work. They did not find a single flag. At noon Adams and I both observed for latitude. Morse remained in camp and made a dark box for developing photographs. York well again. Our boat has not turned out well, she is old and rotten; we shall have to try and buy a canoe from the Siwashes.

July 15th

McBride and I made observations this morning for time and [MS illegible]. While at work, which we began at 6:30, the Topeka appeared coming [up] the inlet. The Capt. and officers were very polite, asked us to lunch and gave us provisions. I made a comparison of my chromometer with the Captain's. All, with exception of me, lunched on board; I made observations for latitudes with Gurley transit and came out 58 degrees x 53' [Written in margin:] (This observation was bad). In the afternoon the morning observations were repeated. Weather beautiful.

July 13th

Sunday. After breakfast today we all assembled in the tent and each read aloud a chapter from the Bible; after that the morning was consumed [by] writing etc. In the afternoon, Morse Adams, McBride Casement and I took the boat [and] rowed around the creek stream and had a scramble on the mountain behind our camp. Morse develops a talent for climbing.

July 12th

Today Morse Adams and I solved triangles all day. Cushing, Casement and McBride went to the 2nd island. York has been sick for the last two or three days and has been unable to do any work, thus throwing the cooking etc on us. Stomach trouble.

July 11th

Morse, Adams and I took 8 iron pipes with flags and sailed across inlet. Casement went with us and brought back the boat; we left a (wood staff) flag at corner of glacier at water's edge, and then went across. We succeeded in getting about half way across, but in that position were unable to know just how much further we had to go, and as it was nearly half-past six we returned. It took us 1 3/4 hours to return where we had taken 5 1/2 to advance. We planted 5 flags; the [auger?] went in very easily when it was turned rapidly without pressure.

Cushing saw us coming back and rowed the boat near for us. The flags were alternately black and red. We found much ice in inlet and rowed back as there was no wind. In the evening as we were walking along the beach, we noticed a phosphorus [sent sparks?] in the sand. we soon found that this was confined to near the high water line. In kicking up the sand, it sparks seem to fly about. We brought some of the sand up and found some small larvae in it. I shall take some home in alcohol for identification [added text: (this was not done)]. Some Siwashes brought us some fine fresh salmon today, which however is not as good by camp cooking as it is ordinarily considered.

July 10th

Cushing, Casement, McBride and I took the boat and rowed down to a large ice-berg that had broken off yesterday. McBride and I cut steps up to its top which we found 70 ft high by barometer. We then went to the island which lies near the headland to Glacier Bay. This island is beautifully marked with glacial scratches in two directions, due apparently to the influence of a smaller glacier which formerly came down a valley from N.W. The E. side of its island is more precipitous than its W side. We placed two flags on top of island, and I made ten sketches from [these?] stations. Morse and Adams were at with the two transits at camp and station D, and sight on us, but could not follow find us with telescopes. The Aneroid A-1-R fell out of its case and was broken. Returning we stopped at a point of land between island and camp, and saw many much [MS illegible] coming up from edge of water. We could not make out what it was due to, but intend taking some home in bottles. We had a very hard pull back against a strong wind and high waves.

July 9th

It rained all day, but not very hard, so we remained in camp.

July 8th

Morse, Adams, and McBride crossed the inlet today and took angles with [the?] too small transits from stations, A, B and AB. Cushing and Casement went up to remove the extra flags from nei[g]hborhood of station E. I remained in camp to make meteorological observations. I put the Gurley transit in adjustment and measured angles from the camp. The cold wind from the Glacier seems to make the camp colder than higher up on the mountains. Cushing and Casement found a nice little warm lake and had a swim 1200 ft up.

July 7th

Morse and Adams went out this morning to set flags on st stations H and I (white) on islands 2 and 3. I took charge of meteorological observations and Cushing did some washing. The Queen arrived in the afternoon bringing McBride and Casement. The box containing the magnetometer legs, etc. which was left in Tacoma was brought by the Queen, but the photographic plates are still in the hands of the express Co. There were some 280 passengers on the Queen and half of them were more interested in our tents than in the Glacier. Capt. Carroll invited us to dine on board and gave us some fresh meat for camp. Extra Magnetometer needle was sent by Mr. McBride. Prof. Muir got some hoop-iron to make a sled for a trip around the Glacier, in which some of us shall probably join him.

One of McBride's friends from Princeton pleased me very much.

July 6th

This being Sunday, after Breakfast we assembled in the tent and read aloud two chapters from the Bible, and then attended to various small duties about camp until afternoon. After lunch we four (Cushing, Adams, Morse and I [)] took a walk out on the glacier, and went about a third of the way across thro' the crevasses. This was the first experience of my companions in the use of the rope on the glacier. We got along very well. Towards the middle of the glacier the ice rises in sharp blades, making it very difficult to get across along. We were about 1/4 mile from front of the ice. Probably a half mile further back we could cross more easily. We returned to tea at seven; then went along the beach to the ice front, where Morse took two 6 1/2 x 8 1/2 photos of the pinnacles.

July 5th

Morse, Adams and I sailed across the inlet and laid off a [fuse?] line nearly 1000 meters long on the W side of nilet [inlet] on an old moraine. Flags were placed at stations A and B, both white; also a white flag (to be changed to a red one) at stat. ab. Station A is invisible from camp. The moraine on the W side as on E side of inlet is spread out on stratified material, and except in places is fairly level.

In the evening Prof. Muir, Mr. Cushing and I walked along the beach to the glacier front. The ice in places was a deep Cu80[subscript:]4 blue; and showed all shades of blue between that and white. The pinnacles near the shore were massive and grand. The overlapping of the ice over the stratified gravel was clearly shown. Much ice was on the beach, left then by the tide.

The weather is has been rather cloudy today, but the barometer remains high and it does not rain.

July 4th

We intended to lay off a [fuse?] line today, but took all the morning getting out our instruments and getting them in adjustment. After lunch, Morse Adams and I sailed down the inlet, put flags at stations D (wh) and C (red). We also took angles with transit 3123 at these point[s]. Mr. Cushing went off for a climb with Prof. Muir.

July 3rd

Weather a little cloudy; spent day in camp, making [MS illegible] and getting things generally in order. We were all pretty tired. We accomplished a great deal in the way of making things convenient and in order. There has been much thundering from the falling off of ice from the glacier and now there is much ice in the inlet. The barometer keeps at about 30".

July 2nd

Another fine day. Prof. Muir, Mr. Loomis, Morse and I, Adams and I sailed across the inlet, and planted two flags on points F. (Black) and G. (Black). Fine news of mountains. The tributaries of the Glacier from N.W. are very long and large. Much wood found on 1st island. It was very late when we got home. Morse and Cushing planted a red flag at E.

July 1st

When I arose this morning at six we were anchored a half mile below the port of Muir Glacier, and within 200 yds of the shore. The avalanches of ice from the end of the glacier fall continually and the layer ones make great waves which rock the steamer like a ground swell.

I soon went ashore and found Prof. Muir and Mr. Henry B. Loomis encamped (?). They are studying the submerged forests (in sand). Prof. Muir received us very kindly and invited [us] to camp near him, which we did. We spent the day hard at work unpacking and making camp. Edith and Miss Andrews went back on the Elder. The day was perfect, not a cloud in the sky. In the afternoon we saw the mirage in the lower part of the bay. It made the floating ice look like another front of Muir Glacier.

Our camp is on E side of Muir Inlet on the moraine which runs up flush with surface of glacier. Our tents are as follows:

                                                          [Sketch absent from document]

About half past-seven we took a long walk about 5 m. up the glacier to 2nd island. We followed the smooth ice and got home about 12 well played out. It never gets dark here.

June 30th

The ship lay all day yesterday on E. side of Lynn Canal. This morning, Cushing, Adams, Morse and I had our boat set out and started to sail [MS illegible] to Pyramid Harbor, so called from a small cone shaped island in front of it. This island as far as we could judge is part of a moraine. We shipped so much water on account of the high sea running that we finally boarded a fishing smack, and got them to tow our boat ashore. Mr. Laws, superintendent of the cannery said it was doubtful if we could secure proper Indians and recommended that we should take a white man Wm York, and we made an arrangement for him to go with us. We are to pay his expenses and give him $50 a month. If at the end of one month we desire it, he will go back to Pyramid harbor. We had about two hours before the steamer left; and Cushing Morse and I started to ascend the old moraine of a small valley glacier which lies in the valley just behind Pyramid harbor. The moraine was thickly wooded every step. In places Devil's club scratched made us wish we had taken another route. We ascended 750 ft but could not see the glacier on account of a turn in the valley. The day was beautifully clear and the mountains behind glorious, quite equal to the swiss alps. The stream cuts thro' a gorge in one place.

The sail down Lynn Canal was most interesting. Mountains and glaciers on both sides, and great [here?] fields alone made a scene, such as I have never seen before. About ten o'clock we turned up Glacier Bay and saw Crillon and Fairweather looming up ahead; they are magnificent mts.

June 29th

Chilcat [Chilkat]. We cast anchor at the cannery here this morning just as I got up; having passed Davidson's Glacier about an hour earlier. This glacier is about ten miles south of the ship and projects well out into the inlet, surrounded by its wooded terminal moraine. We Mr. Cushing and I went ashore in a dry-out to see if we could hire two Indians to go to Glacier Bay, but did not succeed. We may do better this afternoon at Pyramid harbor. The mountains around us rise 3000 to 6000 ft and are much covered with snow, ice and glaciers; this is the first real alpine scenery we have had. The mountains tops are mostly in the clouds.

[Additional script:] Miss H.M. Andrews
                                      State Bank of Olympia
                                             Olympia Wash.

June 28th

Juneau. Reached here early this morning; it has rained off and on all day. Found Mr. Willard who was very kind in helping me to get information about Glacier Bay Indians too high to hire. Mr. Allen spent a summer prospecting at in Glacier Bay and gave me some good points. Clouds low and no view. Bought a chart (701 N.S.C.T.G.S.) and some tracing linen, Miss Andrews alone. I [MS illegible] party went to see the Indian dancers, which were given as an exhibition. In evening ship went over to Douglas Island and we went thro' the stamp-mill (into stamps) and saw where the ore was taken out.

June 27th

Friday, at Fort [Mariyell?]. We reached Port Townsend, Monday 23rd early and saw them taking in freight until 12 n. We then crossed over to Victoria arriving there at 3:30 pm. Beautiful gardens and hard English roads introduced us to the town; where all was neat and English looking. [Written sideways in margin] Passed [MS illegible] Better Breed Indians. The men from the towns on Puget Sound often go to Victoria and buy their clothes, which they can buy better and cheaper than behind our tariff wall. The harbor is beautiful. Olympic range of mts. to S; just slightly explored. We sailed about 10 and reached [Nanarino?] early Tuesday morning, where we took on coal for the U.S. S.S. Pinta. Beautiful tropical-looking foliage, and splendid harbor. We lay there until 2 pm so as to reach a narrow passage at the turn of the tide. On Wednesday morning 25th, we passed Queen Charlotte Sound and for three hours were exposed to the Pacific Swell, which, which cleaned the decks pretty well. Again in the afternoon the swell in [Milhawk?] Sound carried many to seek their cabins. Whales (fin-back) were seen, spouting and diving. On the morning of Thursday June 26th Dixon Entrance was passed; the last opening would [we?] approach Silka. We went up Behm Canal to Burroughs Bay, where a cannery is established. A large river, not given on the charts, [power with its canal?], and its water yellow with glacier mud, makes a strong sharp line of contact with the deep blue water of the straight. We cast anchor for about an hour, within 300 ft of the shore in 21 fathoms of water. The Capt. bought a young [bear?] here.

Today, Friday we spend at Fort [Mariyell?], awaiting the tide. The totems, I photographed with my Kodak; and bought a few garnets which came from somewhere on the Stikeen River not far from here. Up to the present we have had very disagreeable weather; frequent showers and low clouds have pretty well prevented us from seeing the high mountains, tho' the [MS illegible] in these narrow channels, with snow-sprinkled mountains behind we are very charming. The New Eddystone Light-house, a nearly perpendicular rock rising about 200 ft from a platform in the middle of Behm Canal, covered with [thrushes?], is very striking. To-day the showers are continual. There are [MS illegible] amusing persons on the boat: The Kangaroo; The Lady with the Toothpick; Son; and Son's Ma and Pa.

Mr. [Gorman?] left us at Loring yesterday; he is Seat. of Explor. Section of Oregon Alpine Club, and is out collecting plants. He gave me some information about the two exploring parties, led by Prof. Wells, with two young college students and [MS illegible] expect to cross the Chilkat Pass and go around the St. Elias range, coming out at the Copper River. The ascent of Mt. St. Elias is to be made en route!! Mr. I.C. Russell and Mr. Kerr are to make a more direct attempt at the Mountain; from what information I can collect of their preparations and adaptability for such and expedition, I judge they will not get up.

Yesterday I compare my chronometer with the Captain's. I will make another comparison before leaving the ship.

June 22nd (Sunday)

Steamer now late [(]sailed about 6 pm[)]; showery weather. Saw our freight put on board. Ship canine is head of cattle to [paean?]. Bought a row-boat with a sail at an enormous price $75. The letter from Mr. Millard, [MS illegible], led us to expect to pay $2 to 2.50 per day for each Indian. We therefore bought this [boat?] and intend to do without Indians, except perhaps for  a week or two.

June 21st

Made morning and afternoon magnetic observations today; also some [un?]satisfactory observations on Sun. At noon come one come [all?] with Mr. Anderson's (jeweller) observed meridian passage of Sun for to determine time. I determined conection for my chron. but do not consider the observations my accounts.

June 20th

Showers off and on; Mt Tacoma still hid. A bear near the hotel is the great excitement, tho it does not offer much variety in its movements.

Everything is progressing finely for our trip.

Commenced magnetic observations today; [but?] could not determine the meridian for lack of [sun?] at right time. Hope to do this tomorrow.

June 19th

All these western towns are rivals, and each wants to be larger than the others; hence they are all dissatisfied about the census returns and accuse the enumerators of carelessness in their work. The amount of excitement over this is very strange as one from the East.

Today the weather is clear, but Mt. Tacoma is still hid by clouds. By the aid of Mr. Plumm Plummer, County Surveyor, I have decided to make magnetic observations in the Park in old Tacoma.

June 18th

Called on Mr. Moffet this morning. He very kindly put us in the way of getting provisions, etc for our trip. Rain all day. The tide here is 18 ft and a great flat much bank is exposed at every ebb. Tacoma is built on high ground which rises up on one side of this mud-flat; the flowers here beautiful and enormous.

June 17th

This morning we found ourselves in the region of the great lava-flows, towards noon we reached the Columbia River and then followed up one of its tributaries, the Yakima, to the Cascade range. The Basaltic formation along this stream was of much interest. In many places the columns showed well. We had a few glimpses of the snow-clad Sierras towards the evening, but did not see the range well. We reached Tacoma at 11pm.

June 16th

This morning Adams and Morse were up at before 5 am to see the Bear Paw Mountains (the first mountains they ever saw). Soon after we saw the Highwood mountains and the Little [Pelt?] Mountains. North of these ranges had some snow on them. Party harmonious and everything promises agreeable companionship during the summer. We have heard reports of a Cheyenne outbreak south of the Yellowstone, which makes me anxious about Edith, [There is great rivalry among these small towns. Each blows its own trumpet with [MS illegible]. Their situations were so similar and showed no apparent advantage over any other part of the plains that I was curious to know their origin. Our inquiry it turned out as follows: every few miles from six to twelve, the railroad would put in a short side track, in order that trains could conveniently pass each other without waiting very long, and load the cars with wheat. The farmers would then [bring?] their wheat to this point for shipment. An elevator company would put up an elevator to receive this wheat, someone would start a store, and it by [MS illegible] the town would be settled, and grow.]

Air (dry) and clear. The [degrees?] of the climate is indicated by the nature of the erosion - it is very much like that in Colorado. This morning and [MS illegible] over passed this grazing land, having left the wheat region behind.

The three hours before reaching Helena were very interesting. The mountains were [MS illegible] and showed many curious crags. At Helena we could make connections with the N.P. train and as the time tables had been changed, and thus not giving me time for morning and afternoon magnetic observations, even if I should wait more than a day, I decided to push on. We met Edith and Miss Andrews as they were leaving the train and we all went on together. From Helena on the trip is very interesting. It was beautiful crossing the water-shed; soon after we went to bed.

June 15th

All day thru N. Dakota, the wheat region. The towns are situated on a dead level plane (glacial drift) and are all small. They have mostly sprung up within three or four years, since the advent of the R.R. [Macey?] and therein consist of a station house, an elevat a grain elevator and a few houses. The country is perfect, flat except where the streams are, and [MS illegible] a group of moraine hills are seen. David up late  bed (quite small) am continually [MS illegible].

Towards evening, we passed into Montana and approached the Missouri River. The Drift was left behind and we now found Cretaceous (?) clays. Some Indians were seen.

June 14th

Reached St. Paul at 1:50 pm, rainy weather. Our ride [MS illegible] the Driftless Region of [Nissim?] and [MS illegible].

Our passes take us of the Great [MS illegible] as far as Helena then over the Northern Pacific and Tacoma. To avoid expense of buying local tickets for the ladies, they decided to go in the Northern Pacific all the way. We therefore saw them off alone and expect to meet them in Helena. I shall send back the ticket I bought for Edith to [MS illegible] it redeemed.

We left St. Paul at 5 pm and saw St. Anthony Falls at Minneapolis (a post glacial fall).

June 13th

Left bluebird at 10:45 am with following party: H.P. Cushing, Carey Adams, J.F. Morse and Myself. Edith goes with me also, returns from Alaska alone.

Trip to Chicago uneventful. At Chicago joined by M[?] Andrews of Cincinnati, whom we sent to Tacoma. Left Chicago 11 pm.