Journal I : Expedition to Glacier Bay, Alaska, Summer 1890

July 29th

The rain continues. In the afternoon Mr. Cushing and I put on our oil-skins and started up to see the White Glacier. We followed its end up to its valley, a distance of about seven miles. The rain prevented us from seeing [far?] into its valley, but we saw its beautifully curved moraines, and two or three of its tributaries. It must be moving very slowly; at one place debris from the mountain had been washed clear across the white glacier to within a few ft. of its [opposite?] lateral moraine; this moraine being a medial moraine at this point a medial moraine of the great glaciers. The White glacier keeps white to its terminus in front of Dirt Glacier, where its lateral moraine wheels around and approaches the shore just in front of station E. This external lateral moraine is well divided into two b by its material into two bands; a red one, on the east and a grey one on the west side. The line between them is the apex of the moraine ridge, which rises 30 to 50 ft above the ice on its sides. There is a difference of level of 20 or 30 feet between the ice on opposite sides of this moraine.

Opposite the valley of White glacier the main glacier is very low, and rises all around. The ice is very blue. We saw a stream disappear in a crevasse and return to the surface like a Beehive Geyser, the ice having apparently frozen up around the opening.

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